• Ethnic struggle for independence
    • Gavrilo Princip — Serbia 1914
      • shoots Franz Ferdinand heir to the throne of the Austria-Hungarian Empire
  • National Pride
    • Nations need to prove themselves in front of one another


  • Triple Entente
    • France
    • Great Britain
    • Russia
    • Serbia
    • US (1917-1918)
  • Central Powers
    • Germany
    • Austrio-Hungarian Empire
    • Ottoman Empire
  • Other
    • Italy

Secret Alliances

  • Russia and Serbia
  • Germany and Austria-Hungarian Empire


  • New weapons developed
    • Age of Hope
    • World's Fair
  • Armies, Navies have expanded
    • industrialization led to new military technology
    • countries built up their military powers to show national superiority
    • led to Europe being a "powder keg" waiting for a spark to ignite it

Points to Remember :

  • Germany grows rapidly just prior to the war. (ex. Berlin)
    • attempts to become an imperialistic power
  • Great Britain gets involved because Belgium's neutrality is violated and they must contain the German threat.
  • France wants to regain Alsace-Lorraine from the Franco-Prussian war.


Reparations: The Treaty of Versailles

  • Germany's economy is left in shambles
    • Middle class feels threatened
    • Workers are on strike
    • High inflation


  • Liberal Democracy
    • Suffrage
    • Free Markets
    • Free Speech
    • Freedom of Religion
  • Communism vs. Fascism
    • Germany blames Communists and Jews for all of its problems


  • League of Nations
    • Italy invades Abyssinia (Ethiopia)
      • League of Nations does nothing
    • Japan invades Manchuria
      • League of Nations does nothing
  • Munich Conference (1938)
    • Great Britain, France, Italy, and Germany (USSR not invited)
    • Basically hand over Czechoslovakia to Hitler
    • tell him he cannot invade Poland or they will intervene
    • Event of Munich conference make Stalin realize that the Western Democracies do not have his back and are not willing to stand up to Hitler
    • Think of a toddler

Points to remember

  • Alliances
    • Allies
      • Great Britian
      • "France"- fall to Hitler in 1940
      • USSR
      • US
    • Axis
      • Germany
      • Italy
      • Japan
  • Nazi-Soviet Non-Aggression Pact (Ribbentrop-Molotov Pact)
    • Russia needed more time to mobilize
    • Germany was a powerful ally
    • Gave Russians opportunity to gain land in Poland and eastern Europe
    • Allowed USSR and Germany to not have to worry about a war on two fronts
    • Stalin couldn't rely on Britain and France for support so he turned to Hitler
  • Germany invades Poland on Sept. 1st 1939
    • France and Britain declare war on Germany as they promised
  • Germany proceeds to attack Denmark, Norway, Netherlands, Belgium, and finally France
  • Battle of Britain (1940)
    • Air invasion on Britain that does not prove to be successful
  • Germany turns on Russia in 1941
  • Japan pushes the US into war with Pearl Harbor (1941)
    • US puts embargo on Japan for oil and iron
    • Japan responds with Pearl Harbor
    • US declares war on Japan
    • Germany then declares war on the US.
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