Rise of Lenin

Origins of Single Party State

Conditions which produced the single party state

Emergence of leader: aims, ideology, and support

* Groups searching for power after the revolution
* The Liberals: Kadets, Octoberists, Progressive Bloc
* Main Beliefs: parliamentary democracy, civil rights, free elections in which all men could vote
* Methods: Non-violent political channels, the zemstvo, the Duma, the press and meetings
* Socialist Revolutionaries:
* Main Beliefs:
* Placed hope for revolution with peasants
* Excepted the development of capitalism as a fact
* Methods: Agitation, and terrorism.
* Social Democrats:Bolsheviks, and Mensheviks
* Main Beliefs: Both factions accepted main tenets of Marxism but split over role of the party
* Bolsheviks-
* few but highly disciplined professional revolutionaries
* operated under central leadership
* highly centralized party
* Mensheviks-
* broadly based party, who would accept all who wanted to join
* democratic, allowed members to have a say in policy making
* encouraging of trade unions

  • Petrograd Soviet-
    • elected individuals from factories to represent the people
    • soldiers also were represented in the Soviet
    • intended to protect the interest of the workers and soldiers
    • Had more power because they controlled the infrastructure
    • could have taken power but didn't want to fight
  • Provisional Government-
  • formed of individuals selected by the Duma
    • intended to be a place holding government until The Constituent Government was formed
    • said they would hold elections for the constituent assembly
  • Kerensky was a member of both and served as a line of communication
  • Small local governments were set up around the country
  • Conditions did not immediately get better because they were still fighting in WWII

Lenin's Rise to Power

  • Lenin had been exiled in Switzerland but returned to Russia with the help of Germany
  • Menshevik leader told him that he was not needed and that he should leave
  • Lenin delivered the April Thesis, which called for:
    • world wide socialist revolution
    • immediate end of war
    • Soviet to take over Provisional Government
    • Land given to the poor
  • Slogan of "Bread, Peace and Land!"
  • Lenin was a strong leader, and used his rhetoric skills to can support
  • Lenin believed that the world wide socialist revolution would occur when the weakest link in the capitalist chain (Russia) would break, opposed to Marx's view that the most industrialized country would be the spark of revolution
  • Flaws of Provisional Government:
    • War:
      • people did not want the war to continue but the gov't couldnt afford to lose so they launched an attack on Germany which failed miserably
      • people were outraged and it led to the July Days (more info later)
    • Land:
      • People wanted immediate land reform but the Provisional Government wanted to wait, so that the Constituent Assembly could divide land
      • Angered peasants took land anyways without permission
    • Minority Groups:
      • demanded more autonomy
    • Economy:
      • shortage of food, fuel and raw materials
      • Grain shortage
  • Problems facing Kerensky:
    • liberals in gov't were moving to the right, now wanted:
      • no land reforms
      • defense of property
      • military discipline
      • law and order re-established
    • army was disintegrating:
      • regiments were deserting
      • commandeering of trains
    • Control in countryside was lost:
      • land seizures led to increased violence
    • Soviet was declining in influence:
      • leaders were becoming out of touch with the workers
      • lacked decisive leadership
    • economic situation in cities:
      • Grain wasn't getting to the cities
      • factories were closing
    • Increasing lawlessness:
    • Increasing support for Bolsheviks:
      • workers, soldiers, and sailors were becoming more radicalized
      • turned to Bolsheviks for reform
  • July Days:
    • failure of summer offensive and the economic problems caused a build up of anger in workers and soldiers
    • this led to the July Days rebellion
    • Lenin took a wait-and-see policy because he was scared
    • many Bolshevik leaders got arrested as a result
      • Trotsky included
    • Lenin fled to Finland
  • Kornilov affair:
    • Kerensky needed a general he could trust and chose Kornilov
    • Kornilov started to march towards Petrograd
    • Kerenesky armed the Red Army to defend the city
    • Irretrievably damaged Kerensky's reputation
    • Menshevik and Socialist Revolutionary leaders were discredit for association with Kerensky
    • Kadets and liberals lost the trust of the people
    • Soldiers were infuriated and murdered many officers
    • Bolsheviks gained popular support and were seen as defenders of the revolution
    • Bolsheviks used this support to take control of Petrograd Soviet and elect Trotsky president of it
  • October Revolution
    • Lenin decides the time is right to take over:
      • Bolsheviks had control over Soviet
      • popularity was at an all time high
      • Kornilov affair demoralized liberals
      • Provisional Government was helpless
    • Trotsky convinced Lenin to wait until to the second congress to seize power
    • Kerensky sent radical army units out of Petrograd, which spread rumors that they were abandoning the city to the Germans. Because of this the Bolsheviks set up a military revolutionary committee
    • Night of October 24-25 Red Guard took over all key posts ie. bridges, phones, railways
    • Night of October 25-26 Bolsheviks invaded the Winter Palace and arrested everyone
    • This was followed by 10 days of fighting in Moscow between Bolsheviks and other parties

Establishment of Single Party State

methods: force, legal

form of government,

Treatment of opposition

Rule of Single Party State:

Political, economic, and social policy

Status of women, treatment of minorities

Regional and global impact

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