Paper 3 Civil Rights

Civil Rights Movement


Martin Luther King

- Received Nobel Peace Prize

Thurgood Marshall

- Justice in 67


Huey Newton

Stokey Carmichael

Roy Wilkins

Senator Russell

Earl Warren

Chief Justice of the Supreme court, 1953, appointed by Ike
Appointed as a Civil Rights action
Did Ikeís Dirty work


Forms committee on civil rights, 46
Issues To Secure these Rights, 47
Desegregated the military, 48
Lyndon Johnson

By 1960s, federal government had grown into a massive organisation
Took an extremely active approach
Led a majority government
Manoeuvred budgeting so that states were under the federal govís wing
Government had the power to punish the states against CR, thanks to LBJís manoeuvring
Government enforced equality:
Housing projects, industrialisation
John F. Kennedy

JFK for human rights
Took a cautious approach "with one stroke of the pen"
During freedom rides, called for a "cool down" period
Dwight Eisenhower

Ike wanted gradual desegregation induced by culture, not government
Ike proved that the army and federal government could kill mob violence

Montgomery Bus boycott

Sparked by Rosa Parks, Dec 1 1955
Martin Luther King spoke to motivate people in Montgomery during her protest
MLK was involved in the
Montgomery Improvement Association (MIA) used the churches
Gained more than it had intended: elimination of segregation
Used the media effectively
Little Rock

Sept 1957, students try to enrol in high school
Orval Faubus and Southern Manifesto prevent them
Ike sends in the national guard
Shows that federal government can stop racial inequality
Civil Rights Act passes in the same year
Freedom Rides

1961, CORE creates them to promote equality
in protest of Kennedyís doddering
Burned, beaten, destroyed
Kennedy asks delegates for a "cool down period", they refuse
JFKís poor record on civil rights was revealed by this fiasco

- MLK, SCLC protests in the City are a major turning point

Nation of Islam, NAACP, SNCC, CORE all participated
This reaffirmed MLKís reputation
Project C:
Confrontation at Birmingham
Against Eugene Connor
MLK, arrested, wrote "letter from a Birmingham Jail"
A profound statement in the name of CR
This protest solidified MLKís resolve
JFK saw that he had to intervene
Proposed new legislation for Civil Rights
The March on Washington

August 63
250,000 marched, heard
"I have a dream"
SNCC makes violent appeals
Freedom Summer

64, mass voting registration in Mississippi by SNCC
College graduates used to bring problems to the north
Several Delegates murdered
Rioting in Harlem and Rochester, NY
MFDP delegation rejected from Atlantic City conference
Results in Civil Rights Act of 64
SNCC and CORE tire of peaceful methods
Blacks saw that they depended greatly on the government
Hurt by the Whitesí violence
Liberals back LBJ, not MFDP
Selma Massacre

March 65
The last nonviolent moment
SNCC organised demonstrations
A massacre as 600 headed to Montgomery
Bloody Sunday
Jim Clark attacked brutally
MLK turns back second march
Malcolm X spoke, thanks to the SNCC
LBJ comes to support voting legislation
Results in Voting Rights act of 65
10 years after Rosa Parks

65, showing the end of peaceful protests
A direct result of Selma massacre
End of an era
Chicago, 66
From entry of movement into north
Newark, then Detroit, 67
Worst rioting in history of America
Show how much needed to be done in the North
Death of Martin Luther King

68 in Memphis
After LBJ wonít run again
Results in terrible Race riots
Leader is gone
Government canít help them anymore
LBJ forces through the Fair Housing Act in time of Guilt
Chicago Campaign

66, show different situation in North
Conniving racists, blame blacks for inciting race riots
Northerners were tougher opponents
Daley and cops didnít commit atrocities
Problems there were more elusive
During demonstrations:
Cops didnít use brutality
Daley a wise opponent
Alienated moderate liberals
Daley blamed violence for social decay
1968: housing legislation protests
The Poor Peopleís Campaign & Resurrection City, 68

Organised by Abernathy
Caravans of Native Americans, Puerto Ricans, Mexican Americans, and a majority of African Americans that built a shantytown in DC
This shocked LBJ
He hated to see the ugliness of poverty, and to be reminded of how much remained to be done
They were asked to enter government property illegally, and thus end their struggle dramatically
Lame Duck Johnson couldnít solve their problem now

National Association for the Advancement of Coloured People (NAACP), 1909

Founded by Du Bois
Had golden age in early Civil Rights era
Thurgood Marshall and Roy Wilkins destroyed the legal base of segregation
fought to end segregation aspect by aspect
Prepared the way for the modern movement
Brown v. Board of Education, 54
Baker v. Carr: eliminates racial gerrymandering and reaffirms "one man, one vote", 62
Criticised for being too legal, too hierarchical by Baker
Supported violent parties legally, financially
Under Wilkinsís tutelage, was the only group to survive the era
Congress of Racial Equality (CORE), 42:

To desegregate transportation
47, journey of reconciliation
reborn in 60s as the Freedom Riders, 61
Numerous nonviolent protests in the early 60s
switched to Black Power after Freedom Summer
Southern Manifesto, 56

Southern congressmen and senators refuse to desegregate schools,
and resist implementing Brown by "any lawful means"
South resisted the resolution for 10 years
Outright neglected it
Created new devious rules around it
Obfuscated the verdict
Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC), 57:

Formed to use the power of black churches on behalf of black rights
Organised Birmingham
Tried to lure students from radical organisations,
attacked as conservative in Black Power days
Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC): 60,

Formed after sit-ins
Students remain independent
Affiliated with Ella Baker: Zinn considers her of fundamental importance
A More militant organisation, that went south
Prodded other organisations to harsher measures
Involved in Birmingham, Selma
Violent speeches in march on Washington
Attacked King and NAACP
Organised Freedom Summer under Moses, in 64
Helped to found MFDP
With Stokey Carmichael, switched to Black Power in 1966
Integration = White Ways
Black Power = Freedom
Purged Whites
Condemned Vietnam, 66
Nation of Islam, 30s

Radical organisation of Malcolm X
Back to Muslim roots, emergence of nationalism
Anti-White organisation
Malcolm X left in 64,
Murdered Malcolm X in 65
Black Panther Party (BPP), 66

Formed in CA
Led by Huey Newton
Fiery Rhetoric
Pragmatic programs, armed defense
Acted as neighbourhood police
Free breakfasts
FBI spied on the Panthers like the Communists
Intentionally divided the movement
Inserted agents provocateurs
In 70s, divided between militancy and pragmatism (Newtonís side)
By the time COINTELPRO was killed, it had eliminated the Panthers and other militant groups
Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party (MFDP), 64

MS party born out of freedom summer
Affiliated with Ella Baker, a great leader
Challenged MS democratic party at Atlantic City conference


- desegregated the military

Ike (Dwight Eisenhower)

Appointed Earl Warren, the liberal, to do his dirty work
CR Act of 57:
Create a federal CR commission,
supreme court CR division
CR act of 60:
Ban interference with federal declarations on school desegregation,
judges can hear complaints against officals
Ike helped CR through appointing liberal justices to the Supreme Court
Both watered down to appease southerners

Civil rights act of 1964 (LBJ):
drastic legislation
Prohibits discrimination in public accommodations on sex, race
Gov has more power to compel locals to desegregate institutions
Established penalties for transgressors
But it
does not protect voting rights
May not be followed in the South
Voting rights act comes after Selma
Voting Rights act, 65
Federal registrars to go to the deep south
No poll tax, educational requirements
Redrawing of county lines so as to help minorities
Housing Act, 1968
no discrimination in federal housing projects
War on Poverty
FDRís New Deal
had been designed to help those who had at one time been rich, but
who were made poor by the depression
LBJís War on Poverty
was targeted at those who had always been poor,
or never held a job before
The "hard core poor"
He wanted a big economy to provide
jobs for blacks,
help lift up the poor,
and amass more federal funds
without raising taxes
Office of Economic Opportunity (OEO)
An organisation with branches to assist the poor
The original plan was toned down to appease conservatives
Community Action Program (CAP)
Organised the poor, and undermined the mayors of big cities
College students sent out into the slums and backcountry to help the poor
To raise public awareness of the plight of poverty
Kerner Committee Report

Report of Advisory Commission on Civil Disobedience, Kerner Commission, 68
Riots come from
White racism
Social polarisation
From ghetto created and endorsed by Whites
Need massive federal spending to save the ghetto
LBJ was shocked
White backlash from violent riots lowered support for helping
MLK and Bobby wanted to attack poverty based on the commission,
Both were dead by summer 68
Affirmative Action: 71, UC Regents v. Bakke in 74, proposition 209, 96

Brown v. Board of Education

Part of Roy Wilkinsís campaign against the laws
Thurgood Marshall proved segregation was unlawful
From unequal funding, and bad conditions of black schools
Showed a union of the black lower and upper classes
Lawyers examined the psychological effects of separate but equal
Kenneth Clark showed that separation had detrimental effects on black schoolchildren
Overturns Plessy v. Ferguson
South resisted dramatically: Southern Manifesto

Black Power

Carmichaelís moniker after Meredith was shot
Shortcomings of previous CR movement
Over-focus on South, disregard of North
Peace in the face of unrestrained violence
Movement went to the North after Watts riot
New leaders arose, movement lost support
By late 60s, Malcolm Xís philosophy led the movement, not MLKís
1966: SNCC switches to Nationalism, Black Power
Integration = White Ways
Black Power = Freedom
Reasons why the Movement came About

Mechanisation of agriculture
Destabilised the south
Divided the Whites into haves and have-nots
Great Migration
Brought issues of race problems and racism to the North
50/50 distribution by movementís end
Considering it only a Southern problem allowed issue to fester until it exploded at Watts
International role of US
Fighting the Nazis hurt American racism
BUT allowed crackdown on Black power
USSR constantly attacked their racism in the cold war
America's Achilles' Heel - Henry Lodge
BUT allowed anti-communists to attack the Blacks as being socialistic

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