Topic 2: Nationalist and independence movements, decolonisation and challenges facing new states

7. For what reasons, and with what results, was either Ghana or India successful in obtaining independence?

Thesis: Ghana is a classical example of decolonization of an English colony after World War Two. A mix of nationalism, a foundation of self-rule and educated elite, men returning from serving in WW2, strong leadership, and a weakening of Europe’s hold on colonies because of the devastation of World War Two made Ghana the vanguard of sub-Saharan African independence.

1. Nationalism
-a. International trend of nationalism
-b. Began with nationalists claiming loyalty to the crown but desiring local rule.
-c. An elite that spoke out against colonialism for decades
-d. Returning Ghanaians war veterans were disturbed by the climate at home, and added to the urban discontent and farmers angry at British agricultural policies created “disruptive behavior” which pushed for change
-e. Strong leaders known as the Big Six founded the United Gold Coast Convention
—i. Did not push for revolution
—ii. Did not take part in the existing government
-f. Former member of the UGCC, Nkrumah, created the Convention People’s Party, in 1949, which united the intelligentsia and a growing number of urban workers in the cause independent democracy
—i. Fought with strikes and non violent resistance
—ii. After some violent Nkrumah is arrested for sedition—establishing him as a hero
2. Self Rule
-a. Constitution of 1925 allowed appointment of 6 chieftains as unofficial members of the legislative council
-b. African newspapers called for more representation and two more unofficial members were added
-c. Constitution of 1946 made the Legislative body more than half elected officials—Crown appointed Governor still holds majority power
-d. New constitution in 1951—gave Africans larger control of the legislative branch
-e. After released from prison Nkrumah is appointed to a position similar to Prime Minister by the Governor in 1951
-f. In 1952 position of Prime Minister is created—which Nkrumah was elected to. Executive council is also created.
-g. 1954 Constitution expanded powers and size of legislative body
-h. In 1956 the new assembly was elected.
-i. In 1956 with more than a 2/3 majority the assembly requested independence from England that was duly granted.
3. Political Climate in England
-a. World War Two left England ravaged both economically and politically
-b. World War One had expanded the empire and made management of the colonize extremely difficult
-c. Colonization was not cost effective
-d. Spread of liberal thought against colonialism
—i. Liberal Government in power in England after WW2
-e. However, desire for raw materials still pushed many in the government to maintain hold of colonies.

I. Introduction

• British treated Ghanaians unjustly even though they helped fight in World War II.
• United Gold Coast Convention (UGCC) - wanted Self-government for Ghana
• Nkrumah wanted self-government immediately and left the UGCC and formed the Convention People's Party (CPP)

Thesis: The nationalist spirit of the Ghanaians led under Kwame Nkrumah and the British Empire's inability to manage their colonies allowed Ghana to successfully gain independence from Great Britain.

II. Nationalist spirit among Ghanaians
• Kwame Nkrumah creates Convention People's Party (CPP) ; ' Independence Now' - Influenced many Ghanaians to support him
• 1950 - Positive Action campaign - strikes, boycott foreign businesses, and disobeying the government.
• Constitution of 1951 - rural African had representation in government.

III. Great Britain's downfall
• Britain is bankrupt - debt after World War II
• Britain is hated by Ghanaians - Ghanaians support Nkrumah's Positive Action campaign of driving the British away from Ghana
• Britain cannot take on responsibilities of colonies during financial disaster.

IV. Results
Nationalist campaign results
• May 1956 - Prime Minister Nkrumah proposes the independence of the Gold Coast in a document - Britain agrees.
• Deportation Act of 1957 - deport foreigners who were perceived as threats to Ghana.
• July 1, 1960 - Ghana becomes a republic
The result of ending relations with Britain
• Economy of Ghana plummets
• loss of Britain as a trading partner
IV. Conclusion:
Although Ghana achieved their goal of obtaining independence from Great Britain, their economy plummeted since they lost their biggest trading partner, their conqueror.

Paper 2
Topic 2
7. For what reasons, and with what results, was either Ghana or India successful in obtaining independence? (India)
Alisha Virani

I. Introduction
-British arrived in 1600, reign over India for approximately three hundred and fifty years
-For the first fifty years of their rule, the British did not even realize the permanence of their domination over the Indians; formed the British East India Company
-Towards the latter half of the seventeenth century, the British began spreading the idea of racial superiority; Lord Cornwallis interferes in the Indian government in 1786
-British tried to rid the Indians of their culture, worsened the religious conflict between Hindus and Muslims
-Idea of forming a new nation along with liberating India form the British
Thesis: During the many years of their reign over India, the British managed to worsen the existing tension between the Hindus and Muslims of India and also tried to rid the Indians of their culture. However in 1945, after realizing that the nation would be weak and defenseless without them, the British agreed to give India its independence, and on August 15, 1947, the Indians were successfully liberated from the British.

II. Reasons for independence
-Hindus and Muslims felt as though the British were interfering in their political groups too much
-British were trying to rid the Indians of their culture
-Prevent further conflict between Hindus and Muslims
-Need to form another nation for the Muslims: Pakistan

III. Fight for Independence
-In 1927, British Conservatives involved in the government appointed a commission of investigating Indian politics for future policy-making; this caused the Hindus and Muslims to feel that the British were simply interfering into their political groups
-Commission boycotted by mostly all of India; the boycott was a useful opportunity for an alliance between the Indian National Congress and the Muslim Congress
-Muhammad Ali Jinnah introduces his plan for the formation of Pakistan, a new nation for the Muslims living in India ( in order to lessen the tension between Hindus and Muslims)
-In 1942, the Indian National Congress adopts the Quit India resolution in an attempt to liberate India from the British (agree to the formation of Pakistan so India can be free)
-1943, the Muslim League suggests the Divide and Quit policy
IV. Results
-Just about everything was divided including land, people, money, and even resources
-India becomes independent on August 15, 1947 and the partition takes place on August 16, 1947
-Although the Indians had successfully earned their independence from the British, the governments of both India and Pakistan were unstable and several religious wars broke out amongst the Hindus and Muslims

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