Topic 1: Causes, practices and effects of war

4. Analyse the causes of either the Spanish Civil War or the Korean War.
Paper 2, #4: Analyze the causes of the Spanish Civil War

I. Introduction
The Spanish Civil War, which began in 1936, was fueled by political, economic, and international ambitions. One of the main causes of war was the establishment of the Popular Front, a coalition of leftist groups that included communists, socialists, and republicans. The Popular front gained popularity and eventually won the 1936 elections. They established political policies aimed at harming the National Front and right-wing organizations, while creating economic programs that destroyed Spain’s economy. Frustrated by the Popular Front, the National Front attempted a coup that stole international attention and eventually became a clash between international communist and fascist groups. The Spanish Civil War was rooted in political unrest and economic insecurity, which eventually harnessed the support of international groups, such as the International Brigades, and fueled the fire creating a clash between two major ideologies.
II. 1936 Elections and Popular Front Reforms
A. In early 1936 leftist leader, Manuel Azaña, organized the Popular Front (a leftist group of communists, socialists, and republicans) to fight the National Front ( a group of rightists supported by the Falange Española, though they were not members)
B. The Popular Front campaigned for political amnesty, agrarian reforms and the end to political blacklists
C. The Popular Front won and upset the right wing with its controversial reforms
i. Released all leftist political prisoners
ii. Instated agrarian reforms that penalized land aristocracy
iii. Moved conservative military leaders, such as Francisco Franco, to posts outside of Spain
iv. Outlawed the Falange
D. This angered the wealthy who took their money outside of Spain à this caused economic crisis, the value of currency dropped, prices rose, and workers demanded higher pay à caused a series of strikes throughout Spain
III. Right Wing Coup
A. The more conservative president (although still a member of the Popular Front) was ousted from government and replaced with more liberal Manuel Azaña
B. Right-wing military leaders began planning a coup à Manuel Azaña attempted to negotiate with rebels, but when he realized the Nationalist Front was unwilling to compromise, his government distributed arms to leftist organizations that opposed the military uprising throughout Spain
C. General Mola, the leader of the coup, began to take action à the coup was a failure in most parts of Spain à soon After Francisco Franco joined the revolt and began to conquer much of Southern Spain
IV. International Ideologies
A. The Spanish Civil War turned into an international clash of leftist and right-wing views
B. Socialists and communists from all over Europe fueled the fire by creating the International Brigades who went to Spain to fight for the Popular Front
C. Many famous men, including George Orwell, went to Spain in order to defend the National Front
D. Spain became an international clash of communism and right-wing views
E. The Popular Front and the National Front received aid from the Soviet Union and Benito Moussilini, respectively (note the clash of fascism and communism is reaching its climax during this time period)
V. Conclusion
A. Causes of the war began with the establishment of the Popular Front (leftists)
i. Gained popularity and won 1936 elections
ii. Instated controversial military, agrarian, and political reforms that alienated right-wing politicians
iii. Created economic problems that lowered the value of currency and angered workers who were receiving low wages
B. Angered by leftist reforms, right-wing military leaders attempted a coup that largely failed until Francisco Franco became involved
C. International aid and ideology fueled the fire (note: the Russian Revolution was in the fairly recent past)
D. Francisco Franco and the National Front went on to win the civil war and to establish a regime that executed thousands of republican prisoners, and murdered thousands more in concentration camps

Nic Ginn
Question 4
Analyze the causes of the Korean War
-Since 1904, Japan had occupied Korea
-In the final days of World War II, an agreement had been reached between the USSR and United States the Soviets would occupy S. Korea as far as the 38th Parallel.
-The U.S forces that arrived were not prepared and did not know the history between Japan and Korea.
-The United States supported Syngman Rhee, who was a Korean nationalist exiled to the United States in 1907.
-The U.S asked the UN to settle the issue of the divided Korea and a United Nations commission voted for elections in Korea.
Communists in the South boycotted the election and refused to allow it in the North.
Rhee became president of South Korea in October of 1948.
 Soviets established Kim el Song as the Northern leader.
-As the United States toned down its military in the post war period, the American force went from 40,000 to 472 who made up the Korean Military Advisory Group.
-North Korean Army was heavily equipped with tanks and other vehicles.
-Communist victory in China and the first Soviet nuclear tests resulted in the US policy of containment in Asia.
-The policy NSC 48/2 called for containment to be mostly militarily with economic and military aid given to non-communist regimes in Asia.
-1950- Sec. of State Dean Acheson spoke of the countries U.S would defend and Korea was left out of the group.
-The withdrawal of American forces from Korea convinced the North Koreans to try to unify the country with force.
-The Soviets and Chinese talked with Kim about the United States and his plans to unify the country. In June, Korea attacked.
-This was brought on mainly because of the United States and Secretary of State Acheson leaving Korea off the list of countries to defend.
-Korea’s response to this was sort of like an “in your face” gesture to the United States, which showed everyone that Korea was serious and didn’t mess around.
-Most of the turmoil could have been avoided if the US included Korea in the countries that they would defend.

Topic 1: Question 4: Analyze the causes of the Korean War. (KELSEY MASE!!!!!!!)

a) Introduction /Background information
i) Japan occupied Korea since 1904
ii) Near the end of WWII, the US and USSR reached an agreement to keep Japan from occupying Korea and the USSR would occupy North Korea to the 38th parallel
iii) The US did not understand the relationship between Korea and Japan
iv) When China became communist in October of 1949, President Truman became increasingly worried that communism would spread to the countries surrounding China would convert to communism
b) Paragraph One: Distant causes
i) Two years after WWII, both countries pulled out of Korea, leaving it on its own. In North Korea, where the Soviets had been, a communist government was left behind. The United States left behind a democracy.
ii) Korea had been split into North Korea and South Korea (1948), each side wished to unify all of Korea again under their own form of government
(1) North Korea formed as the Democratic People's Republic of Korea
(2) North Korea wished to unify Korea as communist, while South Korea wished to bring democracy to all of Korea.
(3) Ideological differences that can be traced back to the COLD WAR
c) The Dispute Grows
i) The United States pulled out from South Korea, dropping from 40,000 troops to approximately 500 troops.
ii) The United States also limited the number of weapons to avoid a war conflict
iii) China and the USSR (both Communist and supported the North) were growing very powerful. The US wanted to avoid a war.
iv) Secretary of State Dean Acheson said Korea would not be included in the US’s new defense policy, this further motivated North Korea into an attack.
d) Conclusion
i) On June 25th, 1950, North Korean armies crossed the 38th parallel, in hopes of unifying Korea by force. The Korean War had begun.

Paper 2
Topic 1
Eli Hungerford
4. Analyse the causes of the Korean War.

I. Introduction
Both Rhee and Kim, the leaders of North and South Korea, had been attempting to unite Korea by using military attacks along the border, but North Korea and its supporters were reluctant to attack because it might provoke a war with the United States. However, because the US Secretary of State Dean Acheson didn’t include Korea on the list of countries the US would defend with force in his press release, China, the USSR and North Korea thought it would be safe to invade South Korea with force without fear of repercussions from the US.
II. Background Information
A. Because Japan had occupied Korea since 1904 and Japan had been defeated in WWII, the United States asked the United Nations to settle the division disagreement.
B. The US and the USSR came to an agreement that the USSR could occupy no further than the 38th parallel and the UN decided that elections should be held.
1. The United States supported Syngman Rhee, an exiled Korean nationalist.
2. Rhee became President of the independent South Korea in October 1948.
3. The Soviets installed Kim el Song as the leader of the North.
III. Disparity in troops and equipment
A. As WWII ended, the United States’ 40,000 troops were reduced to 472 officers and men comprising the Korean Military Advisory Group.
B. The Korean army was given only light weapons
C. The North Korean Army was heavily equipped with tanks and other armored vehicles.
IV. US wouldn’t defend Korea
A. Secretary of State Dean Acheson spoke at the National Press Club on On January 5, 1950
1. He said that the US would defend certain countries with force: Japan, the Rykus islands and the Philippine Islands.
2. Korea was left out of the list of countries US would defend with force
B. US withdrew the last American forces from Korea
C. Kim was convinced that the US would not intervene
1. The Soviets, led by Stalin, and the Chinese, led by Mao, concurred with both Kim's judgement about the United States
2. They all agreed that his plan to unify the country by force would be feasible.
D. In June, Kim attacked South Korea
V. Conclusion

4. Analyze the causes of either the Spanish Civil War (1936-1939) or the Korean War
• 1920-Spain considered a constitutional monarchy
-Alfonso XIII was king
-government corrupt
-failed miserably in 1921 when Spanish army was sent to Spanish controlled Morocco to put down a rebellion
• 1923-bloodless coup: Alfonso supported and allowed General Primo de Rivera to take control of Spain
-Rivera—military dictator
• 1930’s-Depression hit Spain (rising unemployment and financial problems forced Rivera to resign)
• 1931 elections-Republicans won major cities
-Alfonso gave up position
-Spain declared Republic and monarchy was abolished
• New Republic largely leftist
-Controversial Agrarian Act 1932 passed (distributed land amongst the peasants)
-Former elite strongly opposed these measures—Spain used to be under a feudal like system where impoverished peasants worked for elites
-Government felt army had too much say in politics and wanted to reduce its influence
-Many army officers made to retire early
-Highly influential Roman Catholic Church hostile to Republic and vice versa
-historic privileges of Church attacked
-priests no longer paid by state
-government and church made two separate entities
-huge estates nationalized
-wages paid by owners of the industries
-military, industrialists, land owners and Roman Catholic Church did not support Republic and sought allies with Mussolini’s fascist Italy and eventually Hitler’s Nazi Germany in 1933
• Army officers unsuccessfully tried to overthrow prime minister Manuel Azana’s government
• Right wing political party Confederación Española de Derechas Autónomas (Ceda) was formed
- dedicated to protecting the authority of Roman Catholic Church and landlords
• Azana’s government lost support from both the right and left
-left wanted communist state and felt Azana was too in the middle
-riots and strikes
-1933 25 people killed by government which was trying to catch anarchists
-government lost much support from working class
-Azana resigned
• elections held later in 1933
-Right wing won support, Ceda largest party
-overturned all Azana’s policies
-Leftists angered—formed Popular Front
- organized strikes, riots and took part in acts of violence
-General strike in 1934 put down by General Franco
-1936-another election
-Popular Front won—Azana reinstated as Prime Minister
-More acts of violence and political unrest-government lost control
-In 1936, a leading right wing politician, Sotelo, was murdered
-Right believed itself to be in serious danger
• Right wing General Franco took complete control of military
-Took control of Spanish Morocco after overthrowing civilian government
-Goal to invade mainland Spain and rid country of the left wing
-Civil War began in July 1936

Topic 1: Question 4
Analyze the causes of the Korean War
•Cold War: Truman sees that the US was competing for world domination w/ the USSR (by siding w/ South Korea, US was able to fight Communism w/out openly attacking Russia)
•Stalin’s involvement in the Far East
o(1949) Kim Il Sung met w/ Stalin and convinced him that he (Sung) could defeat South Korea. Stalin saw an opportunity for the cold war to continue & irritate America ‘at arm’s length’(w/out directly confronting the US)
oKim II Sung met w/ Mao Zedong to obtain his agreement
•(April 1950) Undermining Communism: the American National Security Council issued a report (NSC 68) recommending that America abandon containment and start rolling-back Communism
•In 1950, Syngman Rhee threatened to attack North Korea – the North Koreans invaded South Korea

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