Paper 3

8. Explain why there was a high level of immigration into one country of the region, in the second half of the nineteenth century

Annie Thim
Immigration in U.S. in last half of 19th Century

1) Introduction
a) United states population increase 3times in the last half of 19th century
b) Many reasons
i) People leaving Europe
ii) Opportunities in America
iii) Global changes- industrial revolution
c) led to spread of American dream and idea of endless opportunities
2) global changes
a) industrial revolution- started in Great Britain
i) spread throughout Europe- south to east Europe
ii) replaced small craftsmen
iii) mechanization of farms replaces laborers
iv) famine in Ireland, 1849, began boom of Irish immigrants
3) other political and religious issues
a) immigrants looking for political and religious freedom not found in Europe
i) ex. Germany- experiencing many political upheavals
ii) jews persecuted in Russia
4) changes in world
a) introduction of large steam ships
i) cheap one0way fares
b) wages were higher in Unites States
c) food more plentiful
d) cities provided seemingly endless job supply
e) great plains was open for settling
f) United states building up its infrastructure
i) Railroads and other dangerous jobs- open for immigrant workers who quickly filled these positions
g) Mexicans and chinese immigrated into west
5) conclusion-
a) United States growing and spreading constantly
b) Industrialization of Europe cut jobs
c) Idea of America as land of opportunity began

Cam Nguyen
Immigration into the United States from 1850s to 1900s

The United States was rapidly growing from 1850s to 1900s, and Americans were expanding their country from the Eastern seaboard to the West. This expansion allows the United States to acquire more land from Native Americans and Mexicans, and more land opens up opportunity for immigrants from other countries who wished to escape the economic problems of their countries and who wished to find better opportunities.

Escape economic problems of their countries
- Irish Catholics
o The Great Famine between 1845 and 1852
- water contamination which poisoned potato
- taking one-fourth of the population

Wish to find better opportunities
- Irish Catholics
o Land Run, e. g., Land Rush of 1889
o land in the United State was opened for homesteading on first-arrival basis
o the land was good for farming and settling
- California Gold Rush, the “forty-niners”
o Chinese
- Devastated economy due to the two Opium Wars and the declining power of the Qing Dynasty (mid 19th century). Poverty and small-scale starvation were prominent in many rural areas.
- Missionaries and businessmen came to China (ports, especially in Canton and Shanghai), and they brought positive images of the United States.
- Many came to the United States to seek better jobs even though most were given hard labor (e. g., railroad building). Most sent money back to their families back home. A third returned home after saving up enough money in the United States.
- Gold could be used to purchase goods, food, and other supplies. Immigrants could send gold back home to help their family or take the gold home to improve their existing lives.

Other reasons:
- availability of jobs in the growing cities and in businesses such as railroads, oil and mining
- better transportation across oceans
- international trade
- social and political chaos in Europe

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