Paper 3

4. "The nineteenth century did not bring Latin American the order and presperity that the liberators had hoped for." With reference to two or more countries, to what extent do you agree with this judgment?

I. Introduction
Many Latin American revolutionaries hoped that by bringing independence to Latin American nations, they would be bringing peace. However, this was not the case. Political debates regarding who should govern each independent country and the type of government that should be established tore Latin America apart. This is specifically demonstrated in the numerous political wars and coups that occurred in Mexico and Argentina during the 1800’s. Most of these wars for power resulted in the establishment of dictators, such as Manuel de Rosas in Argentina. Often times dictators and political leaders, such as those in Argentina and Mexico, established corrupt economic policies that destroyed the economies of Latin America and forced its people into poverty. Furthermore, social upheaval resulted from oppressive political practices and corrupt governments. Argentina and Mexico were by no means the democratic utopia that its revolutionaries had envisioned, but were plagued by the political controversies of their oppressive dictators that caused widespread economic and social problems in both countries.
II. Political Upheaval
a. Political issues in Latin American usually stemmed from debates surrounding political structures like federalism vs. centralism and republic vs. monarchy

b. Argentina
i. Won independence from Spain in 1810
ii. After independence Argentina only existed as a group of states that weren’t wholly unified à conflict arose between Unitarios, or those who wanted a unified central government, and federalists
iii. In 1826 the Unitarios fell to local military leaders led by Juan Manuel de Rosas àa new constitution was drafted in Buenos Aires à states disagreed on constitution and Civil War ensued from 1826-1828
iv. 1829 Juan Manuel De Rosas elected à was a federalist and concentrated political power in the governor, taking power away from judiciary and legislative branches à established dictatorship in 1935
v. 1851 Argentine exiles and anti-Rosas groups defeated Rosas à Federalist constitution was established à Buenos Aires wanted to declare itself independent of the constitution, causing an outbreak of fighting ( they eventually lost)
c. Mexico
i. Established as monarchy à first monarch was Augustin de Iturbide
ii. Iturbide closed congress and alienated his political allies, he responded to conflicts with military leaders by firing them
iii. 1823 Santa Ana (a military leader) led a coup against Iturbide and established a republic
iv. Between 1821 and 1850 only one president completed his term à political chaos was prevalent and Mexico sank into anarchy, making dictators appealing to the people
v. Main political problem: who should govern and how

III. Economic Distress
a. Argentina
i. Rosas created a host of foreign crises à skirmishes with Brazil and Bolivia took focus off of domestic problems in Argentina à both Montevideo and Buenos Aires were blockaded in the 1840’s because of foreign disputes with Rosas
ii. Taxes rose because of blockades and economic unrest became rampant
b. Mexico
i. Mineral production fell and employment suffered as a result à one mine employed 22, 000 prior to independence and 4,000 after independence
ii. Wars brought destruction of farmland, livestock, mines, and equipment
iii. Most capital fled the country or was destroyed
iv. Lacked a banking system à most people relied on loans or the church for monetary support

IV. Social Unrest
a. Argentina
i. In 1935 ( after establishing dictatorship) Juan Manuel de Rosas established a violent social campaign à and exiled or executed political opponents, and established a secret police that eliminated social freedoms
ii. Julio Roca became president in 1880 and created a wave of student uprisings triggered by his dishonest election à Argentineans attempted to grand national suffrage
b. Mexico
i. Civil Wars occurred often à independent provinces were established (Yucatan, Texas, and Rio Grande)
V. Conclusion
a. Political unrest often established dictatorships, such as Manuel de Rosas, or created a lack of government, such as in Mexico
b. Inexperienced and corrupt political regimes led to inflation and the inflated prices of goods in both countries à this led to social unrest
c. Corrupt government elections and practices exiled and murdered thousands in Argentina, while those in Mexico fought to be independent from the state à created countries that lacked unification and that were plagued with civil war

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