Paper 3

21. "By the late 1960s it seemed to many Americans that the forces of chaos and radicalism were taking control of the nation." To what extent did the domestic policies of either Richard Nixon (1969-74) or Jimmy Carter (1977-81) address this situation?

Anna N-D

#21) “By the late 1960s it seemed to many Americans that the forces of chaos and radicalism were taking control of the nation.” To what extent did the domestic policies of Jimmy Carter (1977-81) address this situation?
1) Introduction
A) Thesis: Although much of Carters presidency was focused on international relations, he attempted to temper the domestic chaos through various programs that addressed a wide variety of issues within the US in the 1960s.
2) Confronting Energy Crisis
A) The US has a negative dependence on oil.
B) Carter urged citizens to limit gas consumption and proposed programs like the National Energy Act.
3) Economic Crisis
A) OPEC raised gas prices and inflation rose to large quantities
4) Civil Rights
A) Diversified political positions
i) African Americans, Women, and Latinos held positions.

Carter (1977-81)
I. Introduction – Radical ideas and chaos prevailed in the United States in the late 1960s. Jimmy Carter’s presidency was preceded by the scandal of Nixon’s term. For this reason, he was forced to gain the trust and faith of the American people and show them that the government was not completely corrupt. This was easily accomplished by the fact that he was a down-to-earth common man. However, Carter had difficulty quelling the chaos and radicalism of the country when it came to the energy and economic crises and civil rights issues.
II. President of the People – no real hype, down-to-earth
a. Appealed to the people after the Watergate Scandal
b. Failed to influence Congress – both parties often joined against his budget proposals, tax and welfare reforms, etc.
i. Refused to become involved in deal making
III. Energy crisis vs. economic crisis
a. focused on energy
i. encouraged people to decrease oil consumption
ii. passed the National Energy Act –placed a tax on gas-guzzling cars, removed price controls on oil and natural gas produced in the United States, and extended tax credits for the development of alternative energy
iii. decreased dependency on foreign oil
iv. began environmental programs
b. attempt at healing energy crisis could not fix economy
i. “malaise” speech – given after several attempts to reduce inflation (which had risen from 7.6% to 11.3% in 1979) – made the people believe their president had given up
ii. Not necessarily his fault – due to rise in automation and foreign competition
IV. Civil Rights
a. Appointed many African Americans to powerful government positions
i. Andrew Young – ambassador to UN
ii. 28 African Americans, 29 women (6 of which were African American), and 14 Latinos appointed to Judicial branch
b. Did not pass any legislation to help minorities
i. Courts began to turn against affirmative action
V. Conclusion

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