Paper 3

18. Compare and contrast the causes of two revolutionary movements in Latin America after 1945
David Walker
Question 18

I. Thesis: The Revolutions of Cuba and Chile were both very pioneering in their own rights and both grabbed the attention of the United States. Cuba wanted revolution because the conditions of living were not as good as Castro saw fit and because he felt as though Batista was the problem for that. Chile’s revolution happened because of the United States and the right-wing government in Chile refused to let communism into the Western Hemisphere and didn’t believe communism was the best style of government in Chile. The causes were different in that in Cuba was doing it from within and overthrowing a dictator to put into place communism. And Chile was overthrowing the Marxist leader with outside help to put into place a dictatorship.
II. Cuba’s Revolution:
A. Fidel Castro wanted revolution because the dictatorship under Batista was only profitable to a select few and Castro was very nationalistic and wanted the best for his country.
B. Fidel Castro was the leader of the rebelling forces against Fulgencio Batista, who was a dictator that was pro-U.S.
C. This was the first nation in Latin America to dub themselves communist
D. It was also one of the only nations to have beaten back an attempt to have a counter revolution staged by the U.S.
III. Chile’s Revolution:
A. This was the first move towards Marxism that was a democratically decided.
B. The U.S. didn’t want communism coming into the Western Hemisphere so after three years in office Allende was killed/committed suicide and was succeeded by Augusto Pinochet
C. Pinochet was a right-wing dictator and his takeover was helped by the U.S. He ruled ruthlessly.
IV. Reaction by the U.S.:
A. In Cuba the U.S. attempted to overthrow Castro once he had said that Cuba was now a communist state and working with the Soviets. It didn’t work and once the U.S. had failed to do so they cut all ties with the nation.
B. In Chile the U.S. refused to let the people of Chile go towards communism and so they helped the right-wing leaders in a coup to take out Allende.
C. Both of these situations showed the world what the U.S. would do if communism entered its hemisphere and proved to the world that revolution is not possible without violence.
V. Restate Thesis

Matt Dodson

18. Comparing and Contrasting the Revolutionary Movements in Chile and Cuba

I. Intro: After WWII, Latin America experienced a period of intense social and political change. These changes manifested themselves in a series of revolutions that occurred throughout the region’s nations. The 1959 revolution in Cuba and the 1970 revolution in Chile provide interesting case studies for the various revolutionary movements in 20th century Latin America.
Thesis: Though the revolutions in Chile and Cuba were both socialist in nature, they differed in the means through which they were implemented and in their relative long-term successes.

II. The fundamental similarity between the two movements was that both were fueled by a socialist ideology.
A. Castro declared Cuba’s revolution to be socialist in 1961

B.Salvador Allende, who became Chile’s president. Founded Chile’s socialist party in 1931.

C. Castro and Allende both had similar ideas for economic reform:
-limit foreign ownership
-industrialize
-redistribute income

III. However, despite the revolution’s analogous ideologies, the manner through which they were carried out was drastically different.
A. Cuba’s revolution was militaristic nature; Castro led a group of armed rebels to invade Cuba and overthrow Batista.
B. Contrarily, Allende carried out the movement through democratic means by winning Chile’s presidential election.

IV. The revolutions also differed in their relative long-term successes.
A. The Cuban Revolution was one of the most enduring and influential movements of the 20th century.
a. Castro’s movement brought about long-term reforms in Cuba’s culture, health care, and education systems.
b. Government is still in place
B. Allende, however, was overthrown only three years after he assumed power. Pinochet, a brutal right-wing dictator, replaced him.

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