Paper 3

17. Analyse the relatios between the United States and either Canada or one country in Latin America, between 1945 and 1965

I. Introduction
Prior to the presidency of Fulgencio Batista in 1952 the United States had relatively no interest in Cuba. However, the emergence of Batista as president heightened US interest in Cuba by providing them with a political figure that they could rely on. US businesses invested over $1 billion dollars in Cuba. These economic ties to its island neighbor established amiable relations between Cuba and the US. However, when Fidel Castro took power from Batista in 1959, relations between the US and Cuba began to falter. Castro implemented land reforms, taking much of the US-owned property. He also sought economic aid from the Soviet Union, causing the United States to place an embargo on Cuba and attempt to organize a coup in Cuba between 1960 and 1961. Although the United States established friendly relations with Cuba from scratch, relations turned sour very quickly when Castro took power and implemented economic and political reforms that established Cuba as a socialist ally of the USSR.
II. Batista Regime
a. Emergence of Fulgencio Batista in 1952-1959 ushered in an era of good US/Cuban relations
b. Under Batista, Cuba was taken over by U.S. investorsà owned a majority of the Cuban economy, their investments totaling over $1 billion à Cuba was very corrupt and was a getaway for American organized crime
c. Us businessmen owned 40% of sugar manufacturing, 50% of railways, and 90% of utilities à deprived Cuba of developing secondary industries
d. In 1958 fighting broke out against the Batista regime à US government decided not to sell rifles to Batista government, deciding the fate of the revolution and Batista’s defeat
III. Post- 1959: Era of Castro
A. In 1959 Castro instated economic and agrarian reform
i. Angered USà high utility rates charged by US companies were slashed, estates were confiscated and worked as cooperatives
ii. US refused economic aid à Castro reached out to Soviet Union, the US mistook this as allegiance to USSR
B. Cuban Embargo
i. Three main US petroleum investors (Shell, Texaco, and Standard Oil) refused to extend credit to Castro (they wanted payment up front) à Castro developed his own oil company, Cuban Petroleum Institute
ii. Eisenhower cut Cuba’s sugar quota, Cuba responded by expropriating US oil companies à on October 14, 1960 the US announced a trade embargo on all goods except for medicine
iii. On January 4, 1961 the US broke all diplomatic relations w/ Cuba
C. Bay of Pigs (1961)
i. Cold War mentality of containment in Washington convinced diplomats that the revolution in Cuba had to be turned back
ii. In 1961 the US launched the Bay of Pigs à anti-Castro exiles trained by the CIA
iii. To prepare for Bay of Pigs CIA attacked several air fields killing 7 à next day Castro officially announced the revolution Socialist
C. Cuban Missile Crisis (1962)
i. Castro fears US invasion and allows USSR to establish missile sites on Cuba
ii. brought the world on the brink of nuclear destruction
iii. climax of the clash between Cuba and the US
IV. Conclusion
a. United States had relatively no interest in Cuba prior to the Batista regime in 1952 when the US invested over $1 billion dollars in Cuba and controlled most of its economy
b. Fidel Castro took over and relations turned sour due to Fidel’s alleged allegiance to the USSR à caused US to put an embargo on Cuba and to attempt an overthrow with Bay of Pigs
c. Fidel finally declared Cuba socialist à Cuba became one of the main focuses of US’s Cold War program à Cuban Missile Crisis was VERY IMPORTANT
d. Cuba and US mainly enemies due to political and ideological disagreements

Ebet Davey

I. Between 1945 and 1965 the United States became very involved with making sure Latin American governments did not go Communist. One clear example of this was the CIA’s intervention in Guatemala in 1954.

II. Guatemala’s and the US’ relationship previous to ‘54
a. The UFCO
i. It’s ownage of 90% of the world’s banana crops
ii. It’s ownage of most of Guatemala
b. The president before Arbenz
i. Prohibited all communist groups
ii. Did some land reform but left the UFCO alone

III. Relationship with Arbenz
a. His land reform
b. His desperate attempts to contact the USSR (in vain)
c. His ignoring US requests to discuss occurrences
d. The connections between the UFCO and the CIA

IV. The action
a. The Honduras-exiled rebels
b. The CIA and Nicaraguan assistance
c. The complete success
d. The success leading to Cuba’s problem

V. Conclusion
a. Recap
b. Restate thesis

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