Topic 3: The rise and rule of single-party states

15. Assess the importance of ideology for rulers of twentieth century single-party states
Anna Nelson-Daniel
Topic 3
#15) Assess the importance of ideology for rulers of the twentieth century single-party states.
1) Introduction
A) Thesis: The chaos of WWI allowed dictators to take advantage of the weakened governments to rise to power, creating the single-party states. Each nation governed by a single-party state developed a unique nation from the ideology of the dictators.
2) Hitler- Germany
A) Ideology: German nationalist
i) Racial subjugation and anti-communist views created a strong front that Germany followed.
ii) Hitler had political experience in leading the National Socialist German Workers Party.
3) Mousilini- Italy
A) Ideology: wanted to establish a totalitarian state domestically.
4) Stalin/ Lenin- USSR
A) Ideology: Marxist/ Leninist Views that reflected his dictatorship.
B) Socialism in one country
i) Stalin did not wish to spread communism globally
C) Aggravation of the class struggle along with the development of socialism.

Ebet Davey

I. In order to be confident in one’s government, it is often necessary to share the same beliefs that they express. By definition, an “ideology” is a belief that guides a large group of people. During the twentieth century, several new single-party states were emerging due to the devastating aftermath of World War I and because the ideology of these parties was very appealing. This led rulers of the new single-party states to realize that ideology was very important to staying in power. The right ideology advertised could keep them favored by the people, gain them more power, and it could lead to economic and political partnerships.

II. To be favored by the people
a. After WWI people were in a Depression all over the world
i. Talk about the economic depression
ii. The food shortage
iii. The people’s distrust of the government
b. People need something to do and someone to give them that
i. The ideology of the new gov. has to involve giving people back jobs, food, etc.
ii. The gov. has to sympathize with the people

III. Gain them more power
a. With more support from the people
i. The gov. could do more for itself nationally
ii. The gov. could fight with the support of the army
b. When the ideology becomes widespread, the gov. is sure to be able to stay a long time without being overthrown.

IV. Partnerships
a. If the gov. is successful, the ideology looks successful
b. If the ideology looks successful then other countries will do the same
c. If more countries agree, then they’ll economically and politically support each other.

V. Conclusion
a. Recap main points of three main argument
b. Restate thesis
c. Closing remarks

Emma Bogdan - Topic 3
15. Assess the importance of ideology of twentieth century single-party states:
Background:
- ideology - political system in which a single party forms the government
- any influence of other parties is not permitted and any opposition suppressed
- usually characterized by feelings of nationalism, totalitarianism and militarism
- most arose from Marxism, Leninism, or Fascism
- WWI and worldwide depression created the environment for these ideologies to become popular and appealing to the people

Thesis: Ideology seemed to play a major role in the dictatorships of various twentieth single-party states’ leaders, because it helped these leaders survive the power struggle by providing them with a strong base, and helped them maintain this power by implementing social, political and economic reforms & policies intended to benefit the country, and that were in accordance to their ideologies.

Marxism - Leninism – Fascism
- After WWI the world was left in ruins and people were having a hard time living
- There was no strong political party so they turned to any party that could help them fastest
- In Germany, people felt encouraged to believe Hitler, since he appealed to their nationalism and made them feel proud for being Germans – he did improve the economy
- support came from the poor and farms, workers or peasants
- Hitler and Stalin assumed/ got power legally.
- Single party states were established through forced methods – reforms and uprisings.
In Soviet Union:
• Attempts to industrialize Russia disrupted society.
• Both the tsarist regime and the provisional government were unstable.
• WWI had a negative impact on Russia.
• Socialism in one country
• Collectivisation and Five Year Plans – rapid development of industry – all resulted in famine, liquidation of middle class – kulaks, millions of deaths
• Purges—to maintain power and check any potential conspiracies
• Education, art, media and propaganda used to portray a more favorable version of Russian history that would being the ideology more support
• Media: printed only what would favor communist party
• Women begin to contribute to the industrialization

In Germany and Italy:
• The governments in Europe after WWI were very unstable and constantly faced with various difficulties – Great Depression
• Fear of Communism spreading to their countries drove nationalists to assume power – totalitarianism
• Germany suffered most after WWI – war reparations and shame for losing – felt determined to turn to something else than democracy
• Hitler became a fanatical nationalist in Vienna, where he developed anti-Semitic and racist ideas – Mein Kampf
• Mussolini's Fascists manipulated elections and killed the Socialist leader Matteotti.
• Between 1924 and 1926, Mussolini built a one party Fascist dictatorship but did not establish a fully totalitarian state.

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