Topic 3: The rise and rule of single-party states

14. In what ways, and with what results, was propaganda used by one ruler of a single-party state?

Introduction: Propaganda is a powerful tool, even though it involves little more than words and the way they are used. In the Soviet Union during Stalin’s rule, propaganda was used in the extreme to foster popular support for Stalin, create fear, and eventually create a “cult of personality” that surrounded Stalin until his death and for a short time beyond. Through literature, art, speech, and behind the scenes work, Stalin’s propaganda made him into an omnipotent, god-like figure and transformed the Soviet Union into an unbeatable, industrially dominant nation in the eyes of the people.

II. Types of propaganda
A. Literature/Speech
- poets wrote poems that glorified Stalin; the Russian poet Prokofiev wrote an Ode to Stalin on his sixtieth birthday that shows this, linking Stalin to the countries success in all areas
- book published, The Short Course, completely changed the way history happened, furthering Stalin’s popularity and image with the people
- In speeches, Stalin is referred to glowingly; he is praised in extremely exaggerated ways, which continues to alter the public perception of him to fit the image he has devised
B. Art/Imagery
- Vast amounts of propaganda in this section
- Pictures doctored, to either remove Stalin or add him in, remove his enemies
- God like paintings of Stalin everywhere, and his portraits are literally everywhere, hammering his image and greatness into the minds of the citizens
C. Effects
- Stalin was showered with adulation and admiration on an unheard of scale
- The propaganda was wildly successful; whether faked or genuine, the enthusiasm and adulation were achieved, and Stalin’s image was complete
- Three main ways that the people’s views of Stalin were effected by the propaganda campaign were: They saw him as a Benefactor, grateful to him for their power and status and his bringing up of the Soviet Union; The Defender of the people, since Stalin played a role much like a tsar, and any criticism was directed at the ground troops, not Stalin; and the Charismatic leader, who possessed “superhuman abilities and superhuman wisdom” (Davies)
D. Conclusion
- The propaganda campaign left no stone unturned; it created the cult of personality through literature, verbal speech, poetry, paintings, and art of all kinds.
- It also succeeded; Stalin was adored on an incredible level, and some of it was genuine enthusiasm from the people
- His popularity, although somewhat forced, soared
- Any cynicism was small and short lived

Throughout the 20th century, propaganda has been frequently used by leaders of fascist and communist countries, such as Benito Mussolini, Adolf Hitler, Joseph Stalin, and Mao Zedong, in order to champion their own ideas and causes, as well as to slander real or imagined political rivals. As the leader of the single party state of communist Cuba, Fidel Castro used the propaganda of his powerful, charismatic speeches to denounce the U.S. to Latin America and the rest of the world, and to promote the Cuban Revolution as socialist.
A. Denounce U.S. to Latin America & rest of world
1. 4 days after the Bay of Pigs invasion, Castro delivered a speech that described and analyzed past U.S. attempts to undermine the Cuban Revolution, either through the economy, proxy counterrevolutionary groups, and the “direct aggression” of the Bay of Pigs invasion.
2. Meant to convince audience that America is an evil, oppressive, manipulative force that only wants to invade Cuba because its imperialistic tendencies require war production to survive.
3. Speech displays Castro’s motive of portraying America as an aggressor nation, and undoubtedly misled some into believing that Castro and his regime were innocents who were attacked by the U.S. for no plausible reason.
B. Promote Cuban Revolution as socialist
1. About 2 weeks after the Bay of Pigs invasion, Castro delivered another speech that explained how it would have been impossible for the people to have “schools, university professions, art, culture, and honors” without a socialist revolution.
a. Meant to convince audience that socialism is truly the right path for the country to follow by describing its benefits
b. However, it was not until this speech that Castro declared socialist, so before then the Revolution was not truly socialist.
2. Regardless, the elegance and humility of this and other speeches by Castro most likely convinced many that socialism was beneficial and necessary.

I. Introduction
a. Propaganda is defined as information, ideas, or rumors deliberately spread widely to help or harm a person, group, movement, institution, nation, etc. Propaganda can be a very powerful tool for leaders. During both his rise to power and his regime in Germany, Adolf Hitler used propaganda to influence the masses. Hitler used a variety of mediums such as posters, literature, and films to promote such ideas as the discrimination against Jews, Nazi family values, and the German’s superiority in World War II.
II. Posters
a. Most common type of propaganda
b. Paired appealing images with Nazi ideals
c. Example: poster showing Hitler with the Nazi flag marching with throngs of people and a bright shining son behind him. The poster reads “Long Live Germany!”
III. Literature
a. Mein Kampf
b. Books promoting eugenics
IV. Film
a. Themes included virtues of the Aryan race, German military/industrial strength, and the evils of Nazi enemies
V. Effects
a. People were influenced to agree with Hitler and see him as an ideal ruler
b. There was not a huge public outcry against the genocide against Jews, Gypsies, etc.
VI. Conclusion

Topic 3: Question 14: In what ways, and with what results, was propaganda used by Stalin? (KELSEY MASE!!!!!!)
a) Introduction
i) Although Stalin’s rise to power was fueled by personal ambition (perhaps amoral) it can also be attributed to the extensive use of propaganda found in the USSR during Stalin’s reign
ii) Propaganda is the spreading of ideas to further or damage a cause, also the ideas or allegations spread for a purpose
b) Types of propaganda
i) Oratory propaganda (used speeches to further his cause)
(1) Stalin told people what they wanted to hear
(2) Justified his actions, was not always truthful
(3) Often said that he was “the leader of the people” and encouraged them to jump on the bandwagon because he could take the country and its people in the right direction. His supporters would move the USSR towards prosperity.
ii) Posters/Photographs/Written Propaganda
(1) Pictures of Stalin presented him as kind, caring, and a man of the people
(a) Refer to picture of him with the girl that was sent to the gulags just days later
(2) This made him more appealing to the public
(3) Stalin’s face was everywhere. He was glorified and seemed to be almost a godlike figure.
(4) Places named after him
(5) History books and photographs were changed to make him the hero of the Revolution, and obliterate the names of purged people (e.g. Trotsky).
c) With what results… .
(1) Censorship of anything that might reflect badly on Stalin
(2) continuous praise and applause
(3) Mothers taught their children that Stalin was ‘the wisest man of the age’
ii) People were not allowed to form their own opinions and did not know the entire truth about their country
iii) A cult of personality is similar to general hero worship except that it is created specifically for political leaders.

Annie Thim
Hitler’s use of Propoganda

1) Introduction
a) Encompassed all forms of communication
b) Targeted youth
c) Minster of propaganda was very important in government
d) Propaganda to rest of the world, very important to show Nazi strength
2) nazi control of communication
a) books, filmed, radio, literature, art, music, film were all controlled by government
i) in favor of Nazis
ii) all anit-nazi sentiment was harshly punished
b) poster littered street and showed nazi strength
c) cheap radios were distributor to spread radio program
d) in order to participate in propaganda ministry you had to be a member of the Reich chamber, shows importance of loyalty
3) Targeted youth
a) In schools history and biology taught Nazi strength and focused on jews being historically and biologically inferior to Nazis
b) Math measured angles and time to drop bombs
c) Hitler youth movement
i) Involved youth in many government activities
d) mass book burnings
4) government
a) minister of propaganda- Goebbels- had power in high government position
b) controlled communication
c) organized mass rallies to show support and strength of Nazi power
d) focused on showing world German support of Nazi
e) spread mass lies of Germans in other nations to Germans in Germany
5) Conclusion- spread lies throughout Germany
a) All dissenters were silenced and punished
b) Hitler Used it to secure his party
c) Used it to secure his party
i) Hitler never had a large majority of votes, he used propaganda to increase his support and win elections

14. In what ways, and with what results, was propaganda used by one ruler of a single-party state?
• Ex. Mao’s Zedong’s Communist China
-Mao used propaganda posters in an effort to influence the public’s opinion surrounding his policies and new ideas
-Crucial to the formation and promotion of the cult of personality or the “Mao Cult”
-served as a useful tool for mobilizing popular participation in national campaigns such as the Great Leap Forward of 1958 and the Cultural Revolution (1966-1976)
• The “Mao Cult”
-Posters used to create a heroic, God-like image of Mao
-Mao seen as an infallible leader
-artists and poets were legally instructed to produce only works that glorified the leader and their political movements
-Mao seen as hero and father of the people with slogans such as “Long live Chairman Mao” and “Follow the Communist Party forever, follow Chairman Mao forever”
- Proletarian ideology, communist morale and spirit, and revolutionary heroism were the messages of the posters
-had to be guided by Mao Zedong Thought (Mao’s ideology), its contents had to be militant and had to reflect real life
-the color red was featured heavily and symbolized the revolution
- The subjects were represented hyper-realistically, as ageless, larger-than-life peasants, soldiers, workers and educated youth
-functioned as metaphors for the strong and healthy productive classes the State wanted to propagate
-gender distinctions of the subjects largely erased, which was also attempted in real life by the CPC
-Men and women looked similar, dressed in the same manner as either a green wearing army member or blue suited peasant
-Successful in that it caused the people of China to believe that Mao was a brilliant leader whose policies and political movements were for the sole benefit of China and to readily support and accept his policies

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