Topic 3: The rise and rule of single-party states

13. Assess the methods used by either Nasser or Perón to remain in power

Thesis: Juan Peron was capable of maintaining power through a mix of populist support from the unions, support from the military, and charismatic leadership—both that of himself and his wife Evita—effectively keeping everyone content except the oligarchy who constantly opposed him.

1. Peron’s first position of power was that of secretary of labor after the 1943 military coup in which he played a significant part. Secretary of labor was an insignificant position at the time; however, he used this position to impose wage increases and social legislation which gained him the support of the working class which he maintained throughout his political career. Due to Peron trade unions quadrupled in size and through political savvy all unions and union leadership was loyal to him. His power with the people was so great that when imprisoned by the military government that ran Argentina from 1943-1946 workers from throughout the country flooded into the capital to successfully force his release. It was this working class support that elected him to president in 1946 and a congress was full of his supporters.

2. Evita had been one of the leaders that had rallied support to flood the streets of Buenos Aires. When he was elected president she took over the reins as secretary of labor. She caused significant gains for the working class and became a hero of the people working with great passion for their cause.

3. He spent lavishly on the military increasing the size of the army and giving them modern equipment. This kept them placated until the economy faltered.

4. He granted suffrage to women—in 1951 6 women senators and 24 women deputies were elected…all were Peronistas.

5. He openly opposed US imperialism to maintain the support of the liberals while privately assuring the United States that Argentina would side with the US in any new wars thus avoiding the threat of US intervention present in the minds of Latin American leaders.

6. Unlike most strongmen Peron did not need to oppress opposition to the extreme that many did to maintain support due to his popularity with the people. However, in spite of this he did purge 70% of university professors and replace many Supreme Court justices in an effort to maintain control of the minds of the masses. In 1949 when re-drafting of the constitution allowed him to be re-elected congress passed legislation to repress the opposition. When the elite opposed his activities he would use economic subversion such as closing a plant for insufficient lighting.
a. Oppression actually worked against him. It was his eventual oppression of the church who created a rival political party and rival unions as well as legislation passed in an attempt to keep the liberals happy (legalizing divorce and prostitution, recognizing illegitimate children, and removing some religious instruction in school) that turned catholics against him.

7. Peron fell because of an economic decline that made it impossible to maintain the policies that had ingratiated him to the masses and the military. Furthermore, by creating an enemy of the Catholic church he created an enemy of one of the strongest actors in Latin American politics. When Evita died (cancer) he lost one of his strongest spokesmen. Then there was a scandal involving him and a 14 year old girl which severely damaged his charismatic appeal.

13. Assess the methods used by either Nasser or Peron to remain in power.

I. Introduction
Background:
• Colonel Juan Peron becomes Vice President of Argentina, Minister of War and Minister of Labor.
• Juan Peron improves the lives of workers as Minister of Labor; thus, gaining support from them.
• Peron meets demands of workers by making laws that benefit them.
• Military government official rivals put Juan Peron in jail, but his popularity among workers leads them to bail him out of jail.
• Eventually, becomes the President of Argentina with the support of the workers, military, and the Church.
Thesis: Juan Domingo Peron's social and economic policies that benefited Argentineans along with Eva Peron's ability to gain support from women and urban workers allowed Peron to remain in power as President of Argentina.

II. Peron improves the economy of Argentina
• Nationalized central bank, telephones, railroads, and other parts of the economy.
• Peron pays of national debt of Argentina
• Five-Year Plan - Industrialize the economy
• Employment and wage increase
• high tax revenues
• Second Five-Year Plan - focus on agriculture - exporting agricultural product to finance industrialization.
• IAPI (The Argentine Institute for the Promotion of Trade) - bought products from producers at low prices, but sold exports at high prices - the difference would fund welfare projects and industrialization.
III. Peronism
• Justicialism - doctrines that unites society
• All industries had trade unions.
• Social Security
• Free education
• low-income housing
• Workers had free medical care, recreation centers, labor unions, eight hour work days, the ability to make complaints to labor courts,

IV. Popularity of his wife, Evita, and her ability to appeal to the Argentineans.
• Eva Peron Foundation-welfare projects
• Female Peronist Party - Women Suffrage (1947)
• Law 13, 010 - equal political rights between men and women - uniamously agreed upon.
• Women gain the right to vote - gain support from women
• has influence over descamisados (urban workers); thus, gaining support for her husband.
• Supports Peron which motivates him
• Charms people

VI. Conclusion
Although the support from the military, church, and urban workers helped Peron rise to power, the economic policies and social policies advocated in Peronism as well as Eva Peron's motivation to improve the lives of Argentineans led an influx of supporters to keep Juan Peron in office.

Nasser

Thesis: As Nasser officially comes to power in 1956, he is faced with many of Egypt's economic and social struggles. After losing in the Palestine War of 1948, the Egyptian people were looking for change. Nasser wanted to provide this change for them, and his ability to remain in power reflected how and if he achived his goals.

Nasser comes to power
-1948 Egypt loses in Palestine War —> people want change (government)
-1952 Nasser and Anwar al-Sadat lead a government coup
-Nasser's goals for Egypt are independence, social justice, and better standard of living for the middle classes, who he often sympathized with
-1956 Nasser becomes official president

Government policies
-1952 Land reform: limited the land one person could own to 200 acres, redistribution of land to peasants
-1955 Czech arms deal brought Egypt Soviet weapons, strengthened military
-1956 A new constitution was written: stronger presidential system
Tries to alleviate poverty/improve education
Fuding for Aswan Dam provided by Bristish and U.S, but it gets taken away and so he nationalizes the Suez Canal.
- Suez war begins, but the U.S won't let Egypt be attacked, so it defends the country, making Nasser look like a hero to the Egyptians
- 1958 Egypt forms the United Arab republic with Syria
- Nasser focuses on the idea of Arab Socialism: a populist ideology involving the nationalization of the majority of the economy

Nasser's Downfall
- United Arab Republic breaks up
- The economy is in a slump
- Nasser resigns in 1970

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