10. The Cold War and the Americas

Eisenhower and Dulles: New Look and its application; characteristics and reasons for the policy; repercussions for the region

Dwight D. Eisenhower
-The U.S. president (Republican)

John Foster Dulles
-Secretary of State, anti-communist
-The Cold War as a moral crusade against communism
-Proposed that the U.S. could prevent the spread of communism by promising to use all of its force against any aggressor nation

-The willingness of the U.S. to go to the edge of all-out war
-Under this policy, the U.S. trimmed its army and navy and expanded its air force and its buildup of nuclear weapons

New Look
-The national security policy which reflected Eisenhower's concern for balancing the Cold War military commitments with financial resources
-Emphasized reliance on strategic nuclear weapons to deter potential threats, both conventional and nuclear, from the Eastern Bloc of nations headed by the Soviet Union.
-Due to the costly experience of the Korean War, Eisenhower feared that U.S. resources would be drained by Soviet-inspired regional conflicts
-In order to contain defense costs, it brought about a shift in emphasis from conventional military capability to "air-atomic" (Land and naval forces were cut while continental air defense was expanded)
-Although strategic air power attained a lower level than the Truman administration had projected, it became the centerpiece of U.S. security thinking, embodied in the doctrine of "Massive Retaliation" (popular slogan: "more bang for the buck")

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